Design Criteria for CO2 Evaporators

Following the replacement of CFCs and HCFCs by chlorine-free refrigerants because of their damaging effect on the ozone layer, concerns began to be raised at an early stage about the high risks posed by the new HFC refrigerants and their effect on exacerbating the greenhouse effect. In recent years, attention has therefore increasingly been focused on natural refrigerants. The past few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of carbon dioxide (CO2)
and, particula

Following the replacement of CFCs and HCFCs by chlorine-free refrigerants because of their damaging effect on the ozone layer, concerns began to be raised at an early stage about the high risks posed by the new HFC refrigerants and their effect on exacerbating the greenhouse effect. In recent years, attention has therefore increasingly been focused on natural refrigerants. The past few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of carbon dioxide (CO2)
and, particularly since the 2001 conference hosted by the German Association of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology (Deutsche Kälte- und Klimatechnik Verein, DKV) in Ulm, if not earlier, it was recognised that CO2 has applications that are now economically viable—principally in ammonia (NH3) cascade operations. Plants of this type generally operate at evaporating temperatures of between –40 and –50 °C. There are some special features which must be borne in mind in designing CO2 evaporators, and these will be examined in this article.


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