Stakeholders can submit comments on the European Commission’ proposal to decarbonise buildings until March 15.
The deadline for submitting comments is February 18.
Electric heaters require five to six times more battery power than CO2 heat pumps to produce 1kW of heat, says Konvekta.
New rules intend to reward the most energy-efficient technologies, such as efficient reversible heat pumps and district cooling networks.
TEKO’s ROXSTAsmart CO2 system was installed in a wooden-frame building, with ample heat reclaim.
In 2021, the Swiss manufacturer installed 10 new transcritical CO2 racks and its first two reversible CO2 chillers supplying both AC and heating for a Swiss mall.
The heat pump can replace a gas boiler in an existing home without expensive retrofitting, says Vattenfall.
The heating capacity and COP of CO2 heat pumps can decrease more then 25% during defrost, but optimal defrost can lower this to less than 10%, says Fenagy.
The “negative list” includes refrigerators and freezers containing halogenated refrigerants.