Automakers will get credits for installing low-GWP refrigerants in mobile air conditioners, in a reversal of plans to discard the credits along with other clean-car rules.
R744 is mentioned in a patent filed by Apple for a new electric vehicle thermal management system.
Researchers have found a CO2-based heat pump to be the most efficient of four options studied for mobile air conditioning.
Guangzhou Dinghan Railway Transportation Equipment Co. also debuts direct power supply system and an intelligent control system.
Carbon dioxide is the coolant of the first all-electric Citaro bus, which will soon enter series production.