All models of new ID.3 and ID.4 cars are equipped with energy-efficient heat pump for heating and AC.
Professor Pega Hrnjak highlighted cost effectiveness and availability of components as key challenges for the CO2 industry during GL2020.
The Austrian manufacturer also provides R744 supermarket applications, R290 heat pumps and ammonia compressors.
The German OEM has developed a small-scale roof-mounted reversible heat pump, which heats, cools and demists electric-vehicle cabins
Automakers will get credits for installing low-GWP refrigerants in mobile air conditioners, in a reversal of plans to discard the credits along with other clean-car rules.
R744 is mentioned in a patent filed by Apple for a new electric vehicle thermal management system.
Researchers have found a CO2-based heat pump to be the most efficient of four options studied for mobile air conditioning.
Guangzhou Dinghan Railway Transportation Equipment Co. also debuts direct power supply system and an intelligent control system.